QUAE ORIGO?
QUI ANTECESSOR?

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D. Martin Luther

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I'm convinced, the surname 'Luder' indicates the origin, where the first Luder was coming from. What would be applicable there?

Luodera, Liutra, Lutraha, Lüder, influent of the Fulda river (Weser river). Source

q.v.
Lutra,
1. Lauter, influent of the Rhine, Palatinatez; also Ludra, Luterata, Hlutraha, Hlutra. 2. Lautrach, Bavaria (Swabia); also Lutrensis villa. Source

A river as eponym? No, that could be only a location. What would be applicable there?

There Kleinlüder would be nearby Fulda or also Grosslüder.

Ludera, Lutera, Luttra = Kleinlüder, Hessen-Nassau
Source

That would be convenient of course marvelously to the assumed hessian origin of the Luther. Here something about the history of the today's Grossenlüder:

13. century
The village Kleinlüder had about 500 to 600 inhabitants and developed appreciably to an economical and administrative center of the region.

14. century
The gentlemen of Lüder and of Döring too are bailiffs of Fulda in Grossenlüder. In the Middle Ages Grossenlüder was fortified with wall and moat.
Source

Thus this is the one possibility of the origin of the name. The place was too insignificant for it, but not the hessian gentlemen of Lüder. If one considers that Heine Luder shall have abandoned his aristocracy, then the gentlemen of Lüder are a hot candidate for the name origin.

And then there would be Königslutter.

Luttera (regalis or regia), Luthera, Lotheria regis, Liutherum, Luotrensis urbs, Königslutter Source

Around 1200 the duke of Braunschweig built a water castle directly east the village Lutter, in that protection Königslutter developed to the market town, to which around 1400 the municipal law was chartered. But was this place was so well-known, that the Luder named after it or was named after it?

No, I believe, he was too insignificant. Nobody knew it and therefore the Luder haven't named after Lutter and/or Königslutter. Still the possibilty remains. I cannot disprove it.

If I regard the possibilities of the name origin, then my preference is the Hessian origin. They were not named, but they have named themselves. With the abdicating of the aristocracy there is at all no other possibility.

 
 
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The Family Life of the Luther Family Part 1
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Martin Luther

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